Supplementary Materialsgkz293_Supplemental_Documents

Supplementary Materialsgkz293_Supplemental_Documents. via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway. Further, we find that oxidative stress promotes the dissociation of the Pol/NQO1 complex, enhancing the interaction of Pol with XRCC1. Our results reveal that somatic mutations such as T304I in Pol impact critical proteinCprotein interactions, altering the stability and sub-cellular localization of Pol and providing mechanistic insight into how key proteinCprotein interactions regulate cellular responses to stress. INTRODUCTION The vital importance of genome maintenance is underscored by the evolution of multiple DNA repair mechanisms, each of which functions on a specific type or class of damaged DNA. Of these, the base excision repair (BER) pathway plays a critical role in repairing base damage and DNA single-strand breaks that emerge from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Failure to repair such DNA lesions can lead to accumulation of DNA mutations and chromosome alterations. As such, defects in DNA repair pathways or proteins can predispose to cancer and disease onset (1). Such defects in DNA repair can arise from mutations in essential active site amino acid residues (2), as well as those critical for post-translational modifications (3), proteinCprotein interactions (4) or protein complex assembly or dis-assembly (5). This study focuses on somatic mutations found in the gene for DNA polymerase (Pol) and its impact on the BER pathway. The BER pathway plays a major role in the repair of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage that induces alkylated bases, oxidatively modified bases, base deamination and DNA hydrolysis (6). Pol is the primary DNA polymerase involved in BER and both its 5deoxyribose phosphate (5dRP) lyase and nucleotidyl transferase activities are important for BER (7,8). Mutations in Pol are found in many human cancers and recently, as many as 75% of the tumors analyzed in a colon cancer cohort were found to bear mutations in the coding region or the UTR region of the gene (9C11). Modification of key amino acid residues impacting the 5dRP lyase and nucleotidyl transferase functions of Pol impairs BER efficiency and results in increased sensitivity to many DNA damaging brokers (7,8). In addition, mutations that alter the structure of Pol can affect its activity (12,13), such as the R137Q variant that confers cell sensitivity to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (14) or the P242R mutant that predisposes the cell to genomic instability and transformation (15). Pol is critical for both Oteseconazole the gap-tailoring and gap-filling functions of BER (7,8,16). Pol is a bi-functional, two-domain, 39 kDa enzyme (17). The N-terminal 8-kDa domain name of Pol possesses 5dRP lyase activity that removes the sugar-phosphate lesion (5dRP) during BER. The 31-kDa polymerase domain name of Pol is responsible for gap-filling DNA synthesis during BER and resides within the C-terminus (17). As we and others have described, these repair functions of Pol are promoted or enhanced via essential proteinCprotein interactions Oteseconazole (18,19) as part of the suggested hand-off or baton mechanism of BER (20). Of these Oteseconazole protein partners, Pol interacts with X-ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1) (21,22), flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) (23,24), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) (25), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (26) and p53 (27), among others. Many somatic mutations of Pol have been identified (9), including those that may prevent critical proteinCprotein interactions, HsT17436 such as the R137Q mutation that disrupts the conversation of Pol with PCNA (14). Numerous studies have suggested that cellular homeostasis of Pol protein levels is important for proper mobile function and genome maintenance. Low degrees of Pol boost cancers susceptibility (28,29), while overexpression of Pol is certainly associated with elevated carcinogenesis (30C32). Therefore, proteins degradation has a central function in regulating many procedures of DNA fix and the mobile reaction to DNA harm (33,34). Once we have Oteseconazole shown, area of the homeostatic legislation of the Pol proteins is certainly mediated by its relationship with XRCC1, since free of charge Pol (not really destined to XRCC1) could be targeted for ubiquitylation and degradation (18). In various other unrelated studies, it’s been discovered that proteins homeostasis could be governed with the primary 20S proteasome also, by a procedure that will not need ubiquitylation (35). We’ve extended our research in the homeostasis of Pol to add.