? Residual renal function (RRF) plays an important role in outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) including mortality. The heterogeneity of the studies under 12 months was very high, and Oligomycin A the heterogeneity decreased substantially when we stratified studies by the duration of follow-up. The mean difference of the studies after 12 months was 0.46 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval = 0.25 to + 0.67). ? New PDS showed the effect to Oligomycin A preserve and improve RRF for long-term use compared to conventional PDS, even though it did not show a significant difference to preserve RRF for short-term use. (18) and may help to preserve peritoneal and vascular function compared to the conventional PDS (19). Consistent with this, the use of a new PDS increases cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and procollagen I peptide (PICP) and reduces hyaluronic acidity (HA) in peritoneal effluent in comparison to a typical PDS, confirming the defensive influence on the peritoneal membrane being a dialyzing body organ (20-22). The systemic aftereffect of the brand new PDS on RRF, cardiovascular impact, and RHEB survival continues to be also actively researched by evaluating the preservative impact to regular PDS (21-32). Therefore, it’s important to synthesize relevant outcomes of clinical research concerning chronic PD sufferers. We aimed to judge the preservative aftereffect of the brand new biocompatible PDS on RRF in comparison to regular PDS by performing a organized review (SR) of randomized managed trials (RCTs) that will provide us rationale for selecting PDS. Methods Research Qualified to receive Review Studies had been eligible if indeed they had been RCTs comparing the result of brand-new PDS on RRF with this of regular PDS in persistent PD patients. Research with PD sufferers using generally amino acidity and icodextrin solutions were excluded. Eligible patients included continuous ambulatory PD and automated PD patients. Obtaining Relevant Studies We searched the relevant studies presented up to January 2014 (last search: January 9th) in the international and local databases. For searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the COCHRANE databases, the search terms, Oligomycin A peritoneal dialysis and (residual renal function or RRF) and (RCT or randomized controlled trial* or randomised controlled trial*) were utilized. We searched local databases of KMBase and KoreaMed with the search terms, peritoneal dialysis and residual renal function. The search was restricted to the English language. Assessment of Study Quality Three reviewers (E-Y Seo, SH An, and JH Cho) independently assessed methodological qualities of the final 16 RCTs. One reviewer assessed 12 studies and each study was assessed by 2 reviewers. If 2 reviewers had disagreements even after a thorough discussion, another reviewer joined the discussion to break the deadlock. The studies were assessed for validity using the Cochrane Handbook for risk of bias on RCT (33). The Cochranes tool has 7 domains which include the following: random sequence generation for selection bias, allocation concealment for selection bias, blinding of participants and personnel for performance bias, blinding of outcome assessment for detection bias, incomplete outcome data for attrition bias, selective reporting for reporting bias, and others. The risk level of each study in regard to its bias was graded as low risk of bias, unclear risk of bias, or high risk of bias. Collecting Data Data were extracted in duplicate using a data extraction form. The form was developed by the 3 reviewers and was supplemented and revised by YL Kim. Two studies (25,34) were seen to employ the same patients. The study by Kim (25) was published after reinterpreting the previous results (34) with adjustments for age, gender, and the Davies score. We included the study by Kim (25) for conducting a SR based on statistical rationale. Most studies evaluated the RRF with a mean value of creatinine clearance and urea clearance and standard deviation (SD) as described.