We describe here three urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from

We describe here three urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from the root of the flower models. these natural products as sEH inhibitors is definitely yet to be reported. In our efforts to search for potent sEH inhibitors from natural products and elucidate their possible restorative and nutraceutical applications, we focused on the central pharmacophore of known sEH inhibitors with high potency. The 1,3-disubstituted urea is known as a pharmacophore of potent sEH inhibitors [18]. The urea pharmacophore mimics both the epoxide substrate and the transition state of epoxide hydrolysis, leading to competitive inhibition MK-0679 (Verlukast) supplier of sEH. Lipophilic substitutions within the urea are favored for improved potency [19]. Tsopmo [20]. (commonly known as Oubli in French) is the MK-0679 (Verlukast) supplier only varieties in the flower genus [20]. However, the biological activity of these ureas was not evaluated. On the basis of structural analogy, we hypothesized MK-0679 (Verlukast) supplier that urea compounds in are inhibitors of human being sEH. To test this hypothesis we measured the inhibitory potency of the crude root extract as well as the individual ureas found in against recombinant human being and recombinant rat sEH. The amount of these inhibitors was quantified MK-0679 (Verlukast) supplier using LC-MS/MS, and the analgesic efficacy of the most potent and abundant compound (MMU) was measured inside a nociceptive assay using a rat inflammatory pain model. Materials and Methods General All reagents and solvents were purchased from commercial suppliers and were used without further purification. Honokiol (purity>98%) was purchased from R&D systems (Minneapolis, MN) and stored at 4C. All the synthetic reactions were performed in an inert atmosphere of dry nitrogen or argon. Melting points were identified using an OptiMelt melting point apparatus and are uncorrected. 1H and 13C-NMR spectra were collected using a Varian 600 MHz spectrometer with chemical shifts reported relative to residual deuterated solvent peaks or tetramethylsilane internal standard. Accurate people were measured using a Micromass LCT ESI-TOF-MS. FT-IR spectra were recorded on a Thermo Scientific NICOLET IR100 FT-IR Spectrometer. Ethics Statement The flower samples were harvested under the expert of National Herbarium of Cameroon by Mrs. Ada, a Cameroonian botanist in the National Herbarium of Cameroon. The National Herbarium of Cameroon is the expert in charge of the promotion of study on vegetation. Cameroonian researchers do not need permission to collect flower samples in Cameroon. For the nociceptive assays, all the studies were conducted in line with U.S. federal government regulations and were authorized by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in the University or college of California, Davis. Flower material and sample preparation The flower root samples were harvested on February 5th 2010 at Elounden (Yaound, Cameroon) by Mrs. Ada, a botanist in the National Herbarium of Cameroon in Yaound. A voucher specimen is definitely kept in the National Herbarium of Cameroon in Yaound (Identication No. 6538NM/01). Root material was freeze-dried, reduced to a fine powder and kept at -20C until utilized for the analysis. DNA extraction and sequencing of ribosomal DNA and maturase K DNA partial sequences Total DNA in the root powder was extracted using a Qiagen DNeasy Flower Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) following a manufacturers protocol. The partial sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA and maturase K DNA were amplified by PCR. The sequences of the PCR primers are as follows: 18S ribosomal DNA, ahead primer-1 (5-GCCGCGGTAATTCCAGCTCCAATAGCGTATATTT-3) and reverse primer-1 (5-GAGTCCTAAAAGCAACATCCGCTGATCCCTG-3); and ahead primer-2 (5-GCAGTTAAAAAGCTCGTAGTTGGACCTTGGGATG-3) and reverse primer-2 (5-TGAGACTAGGACGGTATCTGATCGTCTTCGAG-3). Maturase K DNA, ahead primer-1 (5-GGAGGAATTTCAAGTATATTTAGAGTTGGATAGAGTTCGGC-3) and reverse primer-1 (5-CGCAAGAAATGCAAAGAAGAGGCATCTTTTACCCTG-3); and ahead primer-2 (5-GCAGTTAAAAAGCTCGTAGTTGGACCTTGGGATG-3) and reverse primer-2 (5- TGAGACTAGGACGGTATCTGATCGTCTTCGAG-3). PCR amplification was performed with these primers using GoTaq Green Expert Blend (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) as follows: 95C, 2 min; 35 cycles of 95C, 30 sec; 62C, 30 sec; and 72C, 45 sec; followed by 72C, 5 min. This PCR generated a 0.5 kbp-long amplicon that was column-purified using a QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) following a manufacturers protocol. The sequences of PCR products were determined by the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences Sequencing Facility. Extraction The dried root powder (100 mg) was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1) (3 x 2 ml) at space Rabbit Polyclonal to OR10G4 temp (24 h per extraction). Concentration of the combined percolates yielded a yellowish crude draw out (approximately 8 mg). Synthesis of ureas 1,3-Dibenzylurea MK-0679 (Verlukast) supplier (BBU) was previously synthesized [27]. Fig. 1 shows the synthetic plan for the additional 2 ureas explained in this study. Open in a separate windowpane Fig 1 Synthetic techniques of urea compounds found in 7.5 Hz, 5.0 Hz) 7.25C7.20 (m, 3H), 7.17 (2H, d, 8.4 Hz), 6.87 (2H, d,.