doi:?10.1097/00002030-200104130-00021. anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were recorded under standard conditions. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of plasma glucose and lipid levels. Results : Two hundred and fifteen participants were recruited, 160 (74.4%) were on HAART and 55 (25.6%) were HAART naive. Among the individual lipid abnormalities, increased total cholesterol was the most prevalent (40.0%). Participants on TAPI-2 HAART were significantly about 8 times at risk of developing hypercholesterolemia when compared to the HAART inexperienced group (OR 8.17; 95% CI: 3.31-20.14; p 0.001). Hypertension had a prevalence of 25.6% (95% CI: 15.3%-35.9%) and was about 2 times significantly higher in the HAART TAPI-2 treated than the HAART untreated group (p=0.033). The prevalence of low HDL-c was significantly higher in males (24.1%) compared to females (11.2%) (p=0.0196). Many females (27.3%) were obese compared to males (7.4%) (p=0.0043). HAART use and treatment duration of more than five years were significantly associated with higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. Conclusion : HAART treatment was associated with significantly higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, increased LDL-c and hypertension, hence the risk TAPI-2 of cardiovascular diseases. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: AIDS, Cardiovascular, Cameroon, dyslipidemia, HAART, HIV BACKGROUND HIV and AIDS continue to be major public health problems in both developed and developing countries. Worldwide around 35.3 million people are living with HIV, with 32.1 million adults [1]. In 2012, an estimated 2.3 million new HIV cases occurred. The estimated number of AIDS related deaths in 2012 was estimated to be 1.6 million with adults being 1.4 million [1]. Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) bears an inordinate burden of HIV and AIDS [1]. This burden is evident by the fact that more than two-thirds of the global 35.3 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) reside in SSA [1]. The estimated 1.2 million people who died of HIV-related illnesses in SSA in 2012 comprised 75% of the global total of 1 1.6 million deaths attributable to this epidemic [1]. The prevalence of HIV in Cameroon was estimated at 5.1% [2]. The prevalence varies between different regions with the North West Region having the highest prevalence of 8.7 and the South West Region occupying the fourth position with a prevalence of 8.0% [2]. By 2012 in Cameroon 600,000 people were estimated to be living with HIV and 46.7% or 280,000 were eligible for ART. Only 122 783 people were currently receiving ART, which represented 45% of those in need in Cameroon [3]. As reported by WHO, approximately 9.7 million people in low- and middle income countries were receiving antiretroviral therapy by June 2012 [3]. The 300,000 people who were receiving ART in low-and middle-income countries in 2002 increased to 9.7 million in 2012. Between 2002 and 2012, access to antiretroviral drugs in low- and middle-income countries rose 32-fold [3]. The introduction and widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led HIV-infected individuals to experience a dramatic decline in immunodeficiency-related events, including causes of death [4]. As a consequence, life-expectancy increased, which exposed them to the effects of aging itself, including the influence of environmental risk factors known to act in TAPI-2 the general population and contributing to the occurrence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases [5]. The advent of HAART has been associated with a profound reduction in morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS Mouse monoclonal to CD95 [6]. However, several reports have documented increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors (such as obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)) in both HAART-treated and HAART-na?ve patients. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in PLWHA from published studies varies from 10.1% to 45.4% [7-10]. Side effects and toxicities are associated with these highly effective therapies and there is growing concern that the metabolic complications associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy may lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases [7]. Several studies on cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART have been reported in the western literatures but there is scarcity of information on this subject in sub-Saharan Africa, which has the greatest HIV/AIDS burden and increasing access to HAART. Reports advocate that there is excess of CVDs.