This study investigated the genotoxicity of Lapachol (LAP) evaluated by wing

This study investigated the genotoxicity of Lapachol (LAP) evaluated by wing spot test of in the descendants from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses. genotoxic activity were evaluated by KW-2478 way of standard (ST) and high-bioactivation (HB) crosses of Drosophila. An HB cross is characterized by an increased cytochrome P450-dependent bioactivation capacity for promutagens when compared with an ST. Each ampoule of the DXR commercially known as Adriblastina? RD (CAS 23214-92-8) (lot no G0421) manufactured by Pharmacia & Upjohn S.p.A. Milan Italy and imported and distributed by Pharmacia of Brazil Ltd. contains chlorohydrate of doxorubicin (10 mg) methylparabene (1 mg) and lactose (50 mg) with Registry Number 1 1.2389.0046 in the Ministry of Health. Lapachol (CAS 84-79-7) was provided by Dr. A. B. Oliveira (Federal University of Minas Gerais Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil). The molecular structures of the test drugs are depicted in Oaz1 Figure 1. Solutions of these compounds were prepared with ethanol 5% just before use. Figure?1 Chemical structures of LAP and DXR. Three mutant strains of (and (were crossed with males to produce the ST cross (Graf with males (Graf and van Schaik 1992). The resultant larvae of both genotypes were simultaneously treated with LAP to facilitate future contact with the chemical agents to be tested. Larval descendents were collected over an 8 h period in culture jars containing a KW-2478 solid agar base (3% of agar in water) with the addition of a layer of live baker’s yeast (larvae (Rodrigues marker allows the wings of these two genotypes to be distinguished. The agents tested (LAP and DXR) were prepared in ethanol 5% when the larvae were treated. All experiments were performed at a temperature of (25 ± 2 °C) and at a humidity of 65%. After hatching the individual adults that emerged were transferred into a recipient containing 70% ethanol and the wings were mounted on slides with Faure’s solution and analyzed under a compound microscope at 400x magnification (Graf LAP) using the conditional binomial test of Kastenbaum and Bowman (1970). For the final statistical analysis of all positive outcomes the nonparametric Mann-Whitney SMART assay after treatment with Lapachol (LAP). Larvae from Standard (ST) cross and High Bioactivation (HB) cross. Sousa (2009) showed that a commercial preparation of the powdered bark and stem of although toxic did not induce somatic mutation and recombination in from ST and HB crossbreeding. The absence of genotoxicity in this case could be due to the low concentration of lapachol in exposed larvae. However these authors indicated that powdered bark KW-2478 and stem of possess a considerable potentiating effect on DXR genotoxicity. The analysis of flies with genotype was carried out for the purpose of calculating the portion of recombinogenic and mutagenic events. It is possible to separate mutational events from recombinational events because the recombinational events are eliminated in flies with this genotype. A comparison of clone-induction frequencies obtained for DXR in both KW-2478 genotypes indicated that in ST flies 12 of mutant clones produced by DXR were due to mutation and 88% to recombination. Furthermore the very same analysis showed that in HB flies 21 of spots induced by DXR were due to mutation and 79% to recombination. The strong recombinogenic activity of DXR in somatic cells of was earlier reported by Lehmann (2003) Costa and Nepomuceno (2006) and Fragiorge (2007). Our results indicated that recombinogenicity is the major genotoxic effect of LAP 20 ?蘥/mL (approximately 67% through recombination) LAP 40 μg/mL (approximately 65.5% recombination) and LAP 60 μg/mL (approximately 70% recombination). There are no published articles on LAP genotoxicity and the mutagenicity of this chemical was only studied on the Ames test (Krishnan and Bastow 2000 On the other hand mitotic recombinogenic activity had neither been demonstrated nor otherwise quantified. This recombinogenic activity is demonstrated in this study and also found in DXR (another quinone) which again shows similarities in the effects of these drugs. Numerous quinones play vital roles in the biochemistry of living cells and exert relevant biological activities. The cytostatic and antimicrobial activities of these quinones emerge by virtue of their ability to act as potential inhibitors of electron KW-2478 transport as uncouplers of.